Healthy kidneys clean your blood by removing excess fluid, minerals, and wastes. They also produce hormones that keep your bones strong and blood healthy. But if the kidneys are damaged, they could not work properly. Harmful wastes can build up in your body so your blood pressure may rise. Your body may retain excess fluid and could not produce enough red blood cells. This is called kidney failure.
Chronic kidney failure (chronic kidney disease), describes the gradual loss of kidney function. When chronic kidney failure reaches an advanced stage, dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and wastes would accumulate in your body.
Acute kidney failure (also called acute renal failure or acute kidney injury) develops rapidly over a few days or even a few hours. Acute kidney failure is very common in people who are already hospitalized, particularly in critically ill people who need more care. Acute kidney failure can be fatal. However, acute kidney failure may be reversible. If you're otherwise in good health, you may recover normal kidney function.
There are a variety of causes of kidney failure and they can be classified into the following aspects.
Glomerular disease is one common cause of renal failure. It includes primary and secondary glomerular nephritis such as IgA nephropathy, diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive renal arteriolosclerosis, lupus nephritis, purpura nephritis.
These diseases belong to renal tubular diseases including chronic pyelonephritis, chronic uric acid nephropathy, obstructive nephropathy (such as ureteral obstruction, countercurrent kidney disease and stones in the kidneys and urinary tract) and renal damaged due to intake of medicines and drugs that have renal toxicity such as painkiller, heavy metals, antibiotics, some anti-inflammatory agents, antitumor drugs and some Chinese medicines.
Renal damages can be roughly classified into renal parenchymal impairment and renal vascular impairment according to the location of renal damages. Common renal vascular lesions include hypertensive nephropathy, renovascular hypertension, small artery sclerosis, etc.
Kidney failure can also be caused by hereditary disease such as Alport syndrome and hereditary nephritis. 80% of AS patients are inherited and most of them may develop into kidney failure.
Blood system may be damaged due to kidney failure, which resorts in reducing erythropoietin, which can causes anemia. But usually, it is not serious. A few cases may appear reduction of blood clotting factors, which can have bleeding tendency. The complications can be more serious such as acute pulmonary edema, severe cardiovascular lesions, hyperkalemia, insufficient blood volume or infection, gastrointestinal bleeding, respiratory failure, multiple organ dysfunctions.
People with kidney failure may remain asymptomatic for many years. Symptoms may not appear until severe toxicity in the blood has developed. The early symptoms are
a) Swelling. Fluid retention causes swelling in your legs, ankles or feet.
b) Increased heart rate. As the body builds more waste product in the blood, the heart rate increases attempting to send more blood to the kidneys for filtration.
c) Nausea and extreme thirst. If you're experiencing nausea and vomiting, especially if you're over 50 years of age or have a bad family history of kidney failure, it's probably a good time to visit a doctor, just to make sure.
d) Pain in the posterior area near the sides is the most prominent symptom implying that something is wrong with the kidneys.
a) Lethargy weakness, generalized swelling
b) Shortness of breath. The inability to get rid of excess fluids may lead to fluid accumulation in the lungs, thereby causing shortness of breath. Also, the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood reduces due to increased blood toxicity, leading to heavy breathing.
c) Fatigue becomes more obvious.
d) Lose of appetites.
a) Immune dysfunction b) Reduced concentration capacity c) Memory deficit d) Decreased attention span e) Reduced verbal fluency
Hemodialysis is a method for removing waste products such as creatinine and urea as well as free water from the blood when the kidneys are in renal failure to clean the blood and returning it to your veins. Hemodialysis is performed at a dialysis center several times a week, or you may choose to perform dialysis at home. With hemodialysis, you must have an access point on your body where the blood will flow in and out.
There are three types of hemodialysis, conventional, daily and nocturnal. The type of hemodialysis to be used is decided between the patient and the doctor.
1.Conventional Hemodialysis:This is usually carried out thrice a week for sessions lasting 3 to 4 hours each time. In this process, blood is drawn from the patient at the rate of 3 to 400 cc per minute. The tube is then linked to a needle which feeds the dialysis machine. The filtered blood is later introduced back into the bloodstream.
2.Daily Hemodialysis:This hemodialysis is done at home by the patients themselves. This method is less traumatic, but requires more vigilant monitoring. If catheters are used then it is simple, but it gets troublesome in the case of fistulas and grafts.
3.Nocturnal Hemodialysis:This kind of hemodialysis is more or less the same as the first category, i.e. conventional hemodialysis, the main difference being that it is done during the night while the patient sleeps.
A kidney transplant is a procedure in which a kidney from an organ donor placed into a person whose kidneys no longer function properly. Since the 1950s, when the first kidney transplants were performed, much has been learned about how to prevent rejection and minimize the side effects of medicines.
Kidney transplant may be a better treatment than dialysis, because survival rates are higher after transplant. But still there are some deficiencies of kidney transplant. Transplantation is not a cure; it's an ongoing treatment that requires you to take medicines for the rest of your life. And the wait for a donated kidney can be years long. A successful transplant takes a coordinated effort from your whole health care team, including your doctor, transplant surgeon, transplant coordinator, pharmacist, dietitian, and social worker. But the most important members of your health care team are you and your family. By learning about your treatment, you can work with your health care team to give yourself the best possible results, and you can lead a full, active life.
Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy is a treatment option for kidney failure patients who still have urine output. Due to the reduction on renal function of the patients, different kinds of waste products fail to be excreted out of the body, which would in turn worsen the condition of the patient. Over the past few decades, the traditional Chinese medicine has achieved remarkable progresses in treating renal failure and the efficacy of which is impressive. Inflammation can directly cause damages on surrounding kidney tissues, so blocking inflammation is very essential. Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy has anti-inflammation and through this treatment, further kidney damages can be avoided or delayed effectively.
What methods can be used to diagnose kidney failure? There are several types of this disease so patients may feel confused what tests they need to take. Here are some basic methods to diagnose kidney failure.
A:Do I have nocturia? B:Nocturia is characterized by urinating large to medium-sized volumes of urine. Nocturia more refers to the urine volume at night occupy 1/2 of urine of the whole day.People who suffering this may have Chronic Renal Failure (CRF).
A:Do I have oliguria? B:Oliguria is a condition where too little urine is produced. Oliguria refers to the daily urine output is less than 400 ml.
A:Do I have anemia? B:Anemia can make you feel tired, cold, dizzy, and irritable. You may be short of breath or have a headache.
If you have problems mentioned above you'd better go to hospital to do some further tests.
Blood test:Blood tests are generally used to measure the buildup of waste products in the blood. The two major blood chemical levels that are measured are the "creatinine level" and the "blood urea nitrogen" (BUN) level. With kidney failure, BUN and creatinine become elevated. Glomerular filtration rate decreases which means the rate with which blood is filtered through the kidneys and can be calculated based upon the creatinine level, age, race, and gender of the patient.
Urine test:Urine tests may also be used to measure the amount of protein, to detect the presence of abnormal cells, or to measure the concentration of electrolytes. The characteristic is that the white blood cell count become normal or higher and urine protein quantitative increase.
Kidney function test:A biopsy of the kidney may also be done to get bits of kidney tissues to examine under the microscope. Abdominal ultrasound can also be used to assess the size of the kidneys and to help identify whether any obstruction exists.